Do cipó à conscientização

“Uooooooooooouuuu!!!”... O poderoso berro de Tarzan, que marca fascinantes aventuras para leitores e expectadores de filmes e desenhos animados, semeia uma dissimulada ideologia racista, que se cristaliza de geração em geração
227 comentários

A primeira informação da existência do Continente Africano, para boa parte da população ocidental contemporânea, foi através de uma ou mais das 24 obras literárias, dezenas de gibis e meia centena de filmes e desenhos animados inspirados na criação fantasiosa do escritor norte-americano Edgar Rice Burroughs, publicada pela primeira vez na edição de outubro de 1912 da revista The All-Story Magazine, com o título “Tarzan of the Apes”, traduzido para o português como “Tarzan dos Macacos” ou ainda “Tarzan, o Filho das Selvas”. Um bebê, filho de um casal de aristocratas britânicos, com a morte dos pais, é criado na selva africana por símios, mas traz em seu DNA toda a superioridade intelectual, cultural e ideológica do homem europeu em relação aos naturais daquela terra. Em 21 de julho último, chegou aos cinemas brasileiros a 51ª produção da série: “A Lenda de Tarzan”, filme com elenco milionário, dirigido pelo britânico David Yates.

Sem jamais ter posto os pés nos mais de 30 milhões e 200 mil quilômetros quadrados daquele continente, Burroughs ajudou a plantar, cultivar e fortalecer “verdades” contra as quais, hoje, lutamos arduamente para desconstruir. Tarzan é um homem branco, defensor da justiça, pacificador de selvagens bárbaros. O “Rei das Selvas”, berrando e saltando de cipó em cipó, faz-se porta-voz das civilizações europeias e arrasta atrás de si a ideia da inferioridade dos africanos, que necessitam do domínio colonial por incapacidade intelectual, convívio impossível entre diversas etnias, carência de tecnologias para exploração de suas riquezas minerais, animais e vegetais, e por incapacidade de promover a própria prosperidade.

Imagina-se que todos os povos africanos estão assolados pela fome e por uma infinidade de doenças fatais, a bem da verdade, muitas delas oriundas da Europa, tal qual ocorreu com os naturais do lado de cá do Atlântico. Não por acaso, os colonizadores portugueses chamavam os habitantes de suas colônias africanas de “indígenas” e os naturais do Brasil de “negros da terra”. Assim como se pensa que a história dos negros teve início com a escravidão, pensa-se que a África só começou a existir com a Conferência de Berlim, realizada entre 15 de novembro de 1884 e 26 de fevereiro de 1885, que dissecou o Continente Africano e o rateou entre potências coloniais europeias.

Hoje, o imaginário ocidental, além de acreditar que a África é uma unidade e não um continente formado por 54 países, mais de uma centena de etnias, cada qual com cultura própria, língua, religião, culinária diversificada, entre outras diferenças, pensa que seus mais de 1,2 bilhão de habitantes vivem em taperas construídas na floresta densa ou no deserto, em miséria total. Estas são “verdades” muitas vezes confirmadas pela mídia. Não por acaso, durante um jogo da seleção brasileira contra uma seleção africana, o principal comentarista esportivo da Globo, admirado pela velocidade de um atacante do time adversário, afirmou: “Também não é para menos. Eles têm aquele espaço todo para correr”. Ele, provavelmente, imagina que os africanos fincam uma trave num lado do deserto do Saara, com seus mais de 9 milhões de quilômetros quadrados, a outra no lado oposto, e ali realizam seus jogos.

A Conferência de Berlim, realizada no século XIX, dissecou o Continente Africano e o rateou entre potências coloniais europeias (Reprodução)
A Conferência de Berlim, realizada no século XIX, dissecou o Continente Africano e o rateou entre potências coloniais europeias (Reprodução)

 

Um pouco de história

Ninguém pode negar que a África é o berço da humanidade, independentemente daqueles religiosos que a consideram um continente amaldiçoado. Foi na região da Etiópia, no nordeste africano, também chamado Chifre da África, que, em 1974, cientistas encontraram um esqueleto parcial, que denominaram Lucy, com cerca de 3 milhões de anos. Outros fósseis ainda mais antigos foram descobertos posteriormente na mesma região e também em seu país vizinho, o Quênia. Por outro lado, ignora-se que há mais de 4 mil anos, no Vale do Nilo, os egípcios criaram uma sociedade com um nível cultural, filosófico e tecnológico tão elevado que influenciou civilizações europeias, como a grega e a romana. Hoje já não há dúvida de que no Egito antigo dominava-se vários campos do conhecimento, entre eles a astronomia, a farmacopeia e a medicina. Os egípcios, muito antes da era Cristã, já realizavam cirurgias, inclusive de cérebro.

Tais informações, para alguns, não mudam seu modo de pensar com relação ao continente, principalmente por não considerarem o Egito como um país africano, uma vez que ele faz parte do Oriente Médio por ter hoje uma maioria de população árabe. O que desconhecem é que os egípcios antigos era povos majoritariamente negros, em especial durante as dinastias núbias. Isto nos lembra um fato interessante sobre a poderosa Cleópatra, uma rainha que se destacou como grande negociadora, estrategista, falava seis idiomas e conhecia filosofia, literatura e as artes gregas. Com sua beleza, inteligência e riqueza, ela seduziu os imperadores romanos Júlio César e Marco Antônio e, ainda, Otávio Augusto. Ao ser retratada por Hollywood, em 1963, foi interpretada por aquela que era considerada a mais bela atriz da época, Elizabeth Taylor, com seus olhos cor de violeta. Em 2009, pesquisadores da Academia Austríaca de Ciências analisaram a múmia de Arsinoe, irmã daquela rainha, e concluíram que se tratava de uma mulher negra. Além de desqualificar a lendária personalidade, traçando um perfil cruel, avarento e racista, a manchete de um importante jornal paulista foi: “Cientistas descobrem que Cleópatra não era tão bela assim”.

Mas poderio, riqueza, desenvolvimento, organização política e farta produção cultural no Continente Africano não foi exclusividade do Egito, nem apenas dos estados do norte, mais próximo da Europa. Muitas civilizações africanas tiveram profundos conhecimentos de metalurgia, agricultura, pecuária, arquitetura, extração mineral e astronomia, entre outras, conforme artigo extremamente esclarecedor do Prof. Dr. Dagoberto José Fonseca, da Unesp-Araraquara, intitulado: “África: lugar das primeiras descobertas, invenções e instituições humanas”, publicado no site Geledés.  Para quem quer aprofundar-se nestes temas recomendo pelo menos duas obras: “Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação Africana e Afrodescendente”, de Carlos Machado (Florianópolis: Bookess, 2014) e “Isto Não é Magia; é Tecnologia: subsídios para o estudo da cultura material e das transferências tecnológicas africanas ‘num’ novo mundo”, de Renato Araújo Silva (São Paulo: Ferreavox, 2013). Veja mais nesta matéria do Instituto Portal Afro.

Cleópatra do cinema e a real: “Além de desqualificar a lendária personalidade, traçando um perfil cruel, avarento e racista, a manchete de um importante jornal paulista foi: ‘Cientistas descobrem que Cleópatra não era tão bela assim’” Montagem: Reproduções

 

Grandes civilizações

Entre as poderosas e avançadas civilizações africanas, além da egípcia, destacam-se: a do Califado de Sokoto, a de Cartago, a de Cush, a Ioruba, a Nok, a Swahili, entre outras. É surpreendente conhecer impérios como o Ashanti, o de Gana, o Songai, o de Kanem-Bornu, o Luba, o do Mali, o Monomotapa e o Wolof. Há ainda os reinos como o do Congo, o da Namíbia, o Axum, o Baguirmi, o do Benin, o do Daomé, o de Butua, o de Gabu, o de Luango, o de Lunda, o de Matamba, o de Ndongo, o de Oyo, o de Sabá, o do Zimbabwe, o de Sine, o Gyaaman, o Ijebu, o Kotoko, o Kuba, o Merina, o Ngoyo, o do Sudão Central, entre muitos outros, e ainda as cidades-estados, como a dos Hausas e o extremamente bélico Estado Zulu.

Para ter uma vaga ideia sobre o que o ocidente desconhece, basta entender que a publicação “História Geral da África”, produzida com financiamento da Unesco, é composta por 8 volumes, com mais de 900 páginas cada um. Os fatos mais relevantes foram condensados em dois volumes com semelhante quantidade de páginas. A tradução em português está disponibilizada para download, uma vez que a obra impressa sairia num preço exorbitante. Com base nessa obra, foi produzido o livro, com menos de 100 páginas, intitulado “O que você sabe sobre a África?”, que a Prefeitura de São Paulo está distribuindo a todas as escolas públicas municipais, de Ensino Fundamental e Médio.

Até hoje há quem afirme que a tradição da oralidade, na maioria dos povos africanos, ocorria porque eram povos ágrafos, ou seja, não tinham capacidade de se expressar através da escrita. O que poucos sabem é que os europeus “civilizadores” só desembarcaram na África no século XV. Muito antes deles, árabes chegaram ao continente, através do comércio, o que resultou em influências mútuas. Porém, no século XII – 300 anos antes – já havia , no Império do Mali, uma universidade, com três centros de aprendizagem (campus): o Sankore, o Djinguereber e o Sidi Yahya, na cidade de Tombuctu ou Timbuktu. Nessa cidade, com cerca de 100 mil habitantes, 25 mil eram alunos dessa universidade, ¼ da população. Duas outras universidades existiram também no mesmo império, nas cidades de Djenné e Gao. Enfim, conhecer pouco da história da África ajuda bastante a pôr fim a uma série de preconceitos e discriminações, xenofobias e o próprio racismo, além de fortalecer a autoestima e o espírito cidadão dos afrodescendentes.

Realeza e imensa riqueza

Rei das Selvas!? Quer conhecer reis e rainhas de verdade que imperaram no Continente Africano? Procure na própria internet, entre muitos outros, por Sundjata Keita, o Rei Leão do Mali; por seu neto Mansa Mussa, o construtor das universidades de Timbuktu, Gao e Djenné; pelo guerreiro invencível Anibal, de Cartago; por Menelik I, da Etiópia; no mesmo país, busque saber quem foi o Ras Tafari, tão cultuado pelos jamaicanos; busque por Nzinga M’Bande, rainha de Matamba e N’dongo, a atual Angola; e se encante com Makeda, a Rainha de Sabá, que no século X a.C., visitou o sábio Rei Salomão, em Jerusalém, e o presenteou com muito ouro, pedras preciosas, tecidos, tapeçarias, tonéis de perfumes e especiarias, riqueza que não se compara à proporcionada pelas noites em que passaram conversando sobre filosofia, astronomia, literatura e outros saberes, em troca mútua de conhecimentos. Afinal o papel dos reis e rainhas, na África, sempre foi muito além do político, econômico e administrativo. Coube e cabe aos seus remanescentes participar de todos os momentos da vida de seu povo, inclusive nas questões existenciais e religiosas.

Para encerrar, quero lembrar a cantora sul-africana Miriam Makeba, também chamada de “Mama Afrika”, que ficou muito conhecida, na década de 1970, pelo estrondoso sucesso da canção “Pata Pata”. Na época, aqui no Brasil, quase ninguém sabia que se tratava de uma grande ativista dos direitos humanos e combatente feroz contra o apartheid, em sua terra natal, onde grandes heróis, como Nelson Mandela, estavam presos ou foram assassinados, como Steve Biko. Desde o início do século XIX, o símbolo maior dos povos originais, na África do Sul, foi Shaka Zulu, um grande estrategista militar e fundador do Estado Zulu, cujas ações assombraram, em muito, os colonizadores britânicos e holandeses. Em seus shows, ao lembrar esse herói, Makeba afirmava: “Dizem que Shaka Zulu era o Napoleão Negro. Enganam-se! Napoleão é que foi o Shaka Zulu branco”. Pois é, já passa da hora de mudarmos alguns paradigmas.

Vale Ler:

Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação Africana e Afrodescendente

“História Geral da África”

Isto Não é Magia; é Tecnologia: subsídios para o estudo da cultura material e das transferências tecnológicas africanas ‘num’ novo mundo”, de Renato Araújo Silva (São Paulo: Ferreavox, 2013)

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